The Fourth: The al-ḥāṣil bi’l-maṣdar is the outcome of the verbal noun (maṣdar), like death (al-ḥāṣil bi’l-maṣdar) is the outcome of murder (qatl – verbal noun) and pain is the outcome (al-ḥāṣil bi’l-maṣdar) of a blow (ḍarb – verbal noun). The outcome of the verbal noun is something fixed, created, and lifeless, and attributes cannot be derived from it. [that is, the active particle cannot be derived from something lifeless (jāmid), as is well-known in grammar (‘ilm al-ṣarf.] The verbal noun (al-maṣdar), however, is acquired (maksūb), relative (nisbī), and hypothetical (i‘tibārī) and attributes can be derived from it. Thus, the Creator of murder (qatl) cannot be the murderer (qātil). So leave the Mu‘tazilites “to plunge in vain discourse and trifling.”(See, 6:91)
The Fifth: Apparent actions are generally the result of a succession of acts that end in a person’s ‘inclination’ (mayalān), called will (al-juz’ al-ikhtiyārī). It is around this point that the arguments have revolved.
The Sixth: It is Allah’s practice that His universal will looks to the particular will of His servant, [That is, it is manifested in accordance with the servant’s will] so there is no compulsion.
The Seventh: Knowledge is dependent on the thing known; the thing known is not dependent on knowledge, otherwise it would be a circular argument. So a person cannot make excuses concerning, [or disclaim responsibility for], his actions by ascribing their magnitude and measure to divine determining (qadar) [by claiming they are determined].
The Eighth: The creation of the ḥāṣil bi’l-maṣdar is dependent on the ‘acquisition’ of the verbal noun (maṣdar) through the functioning of the divine laws in the universe (‘ādāt Allāh ta‘āla) in accordance with the conditions He has laid down for them. And the nucleus and life-force in the acquisition of the verbal noun is inclination (mayalān), and when this is solved, the nub of the question is solved.
The Ninth: Preference [something being preferable] without a cause or attribute to cause it is impossible, but choice without a cause or attribute to cause it is not impossible. Thus, no aim (gharaḍ) or cause (‘illa) is necessary in Allah’s actions; the only agent of choice (murajjiḥ) is His will.
The Tenth: An existent matter must necessarily have an effective agent (mu’aththir) [to bring it into existence], otherwise preference without a cause or attribute to cause it would be necessary, and this is impossible as shown above. However, a theoretical matter (i‘tibārī) [like human will and inclination] can be specified (takhaṣṣuṣ) without a specifier (mukhaṣṣiṣ);