ple. Moreover, it states unequivocally that there are two sorts of Godfearing people (muttaqī), thus stating openly that the Qur’an’s guidance embraces all peoples, and inferring that Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was sent as Messenger to all nations without exception. Also, by elucidating the pillars of belief contained in the shell of “who believe in the Unseen (yu’minūna bi’l-ghayb),” it supplies details after its previous succinct statements, for it makes explicit mention of the revealed books and resurrection of the dead, and implicit reference to the prophets and angels.
The Qur’an did not opt for conciseness by saying something like ‘the believers in the Qur’an’ (al-mu’minūna bi’l-Qur’ān); rather, in order to stud the meaning with subtleties and decorate its appendices with fine points, it preferred “And who believe in that which is revealed to you (wa alladhīna yu’minūna bi-mā unzila ilayka).” For in “who (alladhīna)” is a sign that the attribute of belief is what is intended, and that a person’s other attributes are dependent on it and concealed beneath it.
In the use of the imperfect tense for “(they) believe (yu’minūna)” instead of ‘the believers’ (al-mu’minūn) [the active participle] which infers [something] being fixed and unchanging, is an indication that belief is constantly renewed on the repeated coming of revelation.
Then with the vagueness of “what (mā),” it indicates that abbreviated belief is sufficient, and that belief includes exoteric revelation [like the Qur’an] and esoteric revelation like Hadiths.
Concerning “revealed (unzila),” in regard to its matter (mādda) it indicates that belief in the Qur’an is belief in its revelation by Allah. Likewise, it means belief in Allah is belief in Allah’s existence, and belief in the hereafter is belief in the coming of the hereafter.
The use of the perfect tense although the revelation had not yet been completed, is an indication that its completion was as certain as that which had been revealed. Moreover, “(they) believe (yu’minūna)” being in the imperfect tense infers the future, thus compensating for the deficiency inferred by the use of the perfect. Because the Qur’an was revealed in this way [that is, by degrees], you see in its styles that the past very often swallows the future and the imperfect tense dons the attire of the perfect. The eloquence of this is a very subtle:
If a person hears something referred to in the past although it has not yet occurred, it arouses his mind and he is alerted to the fact that he is not alone, but behind him are row upon row at various distances, as though the