which were [later] born of the meeting of minds and conjunction of ideas, and concede that the Qur’an’s choosing to be vague and general is pure eloquence and evidence of its miraculousness.
The Answer to the Third Doubt, which is some of the literal meanings of verses tending to be contrary to rational evidences and the findings of science.
Consider this: the Qur’an’s main aim is to instruct the mass of people (al-jumhūr) about its four basic principles, which are proof of the Single Maker, prophethood, the resurrection of the dead, and justice. Thus, its mention of the universe is secondary and digressive, for purposes of deduction (al-istidlāl), for it was not revealed to teach geography or cosmography (astronomy). It mentions the universe in order to conclude from the divine art in it and its unique order [the existence of] the True Orderer (May His glory be exalted). It is a fact that traces of art, purpose, and order are to be seen in all things, but however they were formed does not concern us since it is unconnected with the main aim. For seeing that the Qur’an speaks of beings for purposes of deduction, and seeing that their existence has to be known before the proposition, and seeing that the evidence has to be clear, how could guidance and eloquence not make it imperative that [the Qur’an] should incline with some of its apparent or literal meanings (ẓawāhir al-nuṣūṣ) towards their emotional views and literary knowledge, making concessions to them? Such literal meanings are not for affirming or indicating their knowledge, but are allusive (min qabīl al-kināyāt) or associative expressions (mustatba‘āt al-tarākīb). In any event, [the Qur’an] includes signs and indications for investigators of the truth (ahl al-taḥqīq) that point to the truth.
For example, suppose when presenting its argument (fī maqām al-istidlāl) the Qur’an had said: “O people! Ponder over the sun’s being stationary although it apparently moves, and the earth’s daily and annual rotations although it is apparently stationary. Reflect on the extraordinary gravity holding the stars [in place]. Behold the marvels of electricity, and the infinite combinations of the seventy elements, and the massing together of uncountable organisms in a droplet of water, and know that Allah is powerful over all things!” Had it spoken thus, the evidence would have been obscurer and far less clear than what was being claimed, and that is opposed to the rules of deduction.
Moreover, since [the literal meanings of verses that apparently tend to contradict science] are allusive, their meanings are not either true or false