associator of partners with Allah: the pagans (al-wathaniūn), the Sabeans, the Christians (ahl al-tathlīth), and the Naturalists, all of whom believe that causes have an actual effect.
Note: the source of paganism or idolatry is either the deification of the stars or the indwelling or incarnation of Allah.
“Now that you know (wa antum ta‘lamūn):” like similar concluding phrases of verses (fawāṣil), this indicates that the source of Islam is knowledge (al-‘ilm) and its basis is reason (al-‘aql), and that it accepts the truth and rejects sophistry and delusion.
Moreover, through its conciseness in attaching no object to the verb “know,” [the Qur’an] prolongs the speech. That is, “You know now that other than Him there is no true object of worship and no creator or possessor of absolute power or bestower of bounties. And you know too that all gods and idols are nothing and are incapable of doing anything. They are all created, mere inventions you have fancied.” You should give this due thought!