“[Some] fruits (min al-thamarāt):” according to Sibawayh, since [the partitive] “min [some]” does not entirely lack the meaning of a subject [it cannot be the object of “has brought forth,”] and this indicates that the object will vary according to the understanding of the listener[s]; that is, “such various fruits as you feel appetite for.”
As for the ‘nunation’ (indefiniteness) of “sustenance (rizqan),” it indicates that the causes by which you obtain this sustenance are unknown to you, for it comes to you from where you would not expect.
And “for your (lit. you) (la-kum)” is a hint strengthening the meaning of gracious bestowal. It infers too that the sustenance is for you, but there is no harm if others profit from it after you. Also it implies that the Most High has singled you out for His bounties, so you should offer thanks to Him alone.
The positioning [and relationships] of the parts of “then set not up as rivals to Allah (fa-lā taj‘alū li’llāhi andādan):”
The “fa- (then or so)” [of “fa-lā”] looks to the four sections [above]: that is, He is the true Object of Worship, so associate none other with Him; He is absolutely Omnipotent and the heavens and earth are in the grasp of His power, so don’t believe that He has any partners; He is the Bestower of [all] bounties so offer your thanks to none but He; and He is your Creator, so don’t imagine that He has any partners.
The use of “set up (taj‘alū)” instead of ‘believe’ (ta‘taqidū) indicates the meaning of the verse “These [allegedly divine beings] are nothing but empty names you have invented.”(53:23) That is, meaningless names you imagine exist and are of your own making.
The precedence of “to Allah (li-llāh):” by drawing immediate attention to [Allah] shows on the one hand the necessity of [remembering Him]; while on the other it infers that the reason for the prohibition is the fact that partners are associated with Him.
“Rivals (andād):” [the singular] “nidd” has the meaning of like, equal, or peer, and anything ‘like’ the Most High will be His exact opposite; between them will be contrariety. In this is a subtle hint that the [term] rival or equal is essentially futile. Then the use of the plural indicates the utter ignorance of those who associate partners with Allah (al-mushrikīn), and infers derision of them: “How can you ascribe to Allah, who is without like, hordes of equals and opposites?”
It also infers the rejection of all sorts of partners; partners in His essence, in His attributes, and His actions. It intimates too rebuttal of every type of