Now consider this: the Maker is necessarily existent and one, so too He is qualified by all the attributes of perfection. For whatever the traces of perfection found in an artefact, they are derived from the shadow of the manifestation of its Maker’s perfection. So necessarily, the beauty, perfection, and goodness of the Maker (May His glory be exalted) must be of a degree infinitely higher than all the beauty, perfection, and goodness found in the universe. For beneficence (iḥsān) is derived from the wealth of the Beneficent (al-Muḥsin) and is evidence for it, and the giving of existence (ījād) proves the existence (vujūd) of the Giver of existence (al-mūjid), and making necessary proves the existence of one who makes necessary, and making beautiful points to the beauty of one who makes beautiful. Moreover, the Maker is exempt from all defects, for defects arise from the essential inability of material beings and the Most High is free of materiality. He is also free of the attributes necessarily arising from the contingent essences of beings. Glory be to Him! There is none like unto Him, May His glory be exalted! He alludes to these two truths with His words: “Then set not up rivals to Allah (fa-lā taj‘alū li’llāhi andādan).”
Now for the proof of contingency (al-dalīl al-imkānī), which is alluded to by the verse, “For God is indeed self-sufficient, whereas you stand in need [of Him]:”(47:38) you see that in respect of its essence and all its attributes and every one of its states and all its facets, every single atom in the universe [exists] hesitant and wavering amid endless possibilities. Then suddenly one springs to life, stands, and follows a specific path; it is clothed in particular attributes and assumes an orderly state and mounts an apposite law; it is turned to a fixed destination; then it yields wise results and benefits that could be obtained only in that determined way. Does it not proclaim in its particular tongue its Maker’s intention and wisdom, enunciating them clearly?
Just as each particle singly is a proof, so its evidence multiplies as it becomes a part of ever-growing compounds one within the other. For it has a position in each compound, and it has relations in each position, and it has functions resulting from each of the relations, and each of its functions bears the fruit of benefits and uses. In each degree it recites with its tongue proofs of the necessary existence of its Maker. It resembles a soldier, [who has relations and duties] in his platoon, his regiment, his division, and so on.
* * *