than the matter of which particles consist, which drowns the materialists, and is denser than the index of primordial matter into which the ancient philosophers thrust themselves. To attribute to this matter, which may be fragmented and divided without limit and is equipped with the qualities and duties of being passive and the ability to transmit – to attribute to its minute particles, which are far minuter than particles of other matter, the actions and works that exist through a will and power that sees, knows, and directs all things in all things is mistaken to the number of particles of ether.
The act of creation apparent in beings is such that it demonstrates it proceeds from a power and will which sees and knows most things, the whole universe even, in each thing particularly if it is animate, and which recognizes and secures the animate creature’s relationship with the universe; it thus demonstrates that it cannot be the act of causes, which are material and are not all-encompassing. Through the meaning of Self-Subsistence, a particular creative act bears a mighty meaning that points to its being directly the act of the Creator of the universe. For example, an act pertaining to the creation of a bee demonstrates that it is peculiar to the Creator of the universe in two respects.
First Respect: The fact that all the other bees throughout the world resembling that particular bee manifest the same act at the same time demonstrates that the particular and individual act is the tip of a comprehensive act which embraces the face of the earth. In which case, whoever the author and owner of that vast act is, he must be the author of the particular act.
Second Respect: In order to be the author of the action directed towards the creation of the bee in question, a power and will are necessary that are vast enough to know and secure the conditions for the life of the bee, and its members, and its relationship with the universe. Therefore, the one who performs the particular action can only perform it thus perfectly by having authority over most of the universe.
Hence the most particular and insignificant action demonstrates in two respects that it is peculiar to the Creator of all things.
The most remarkable and surprising thing is this: the Necessarily Existent One possesses necessity, which is the firmest level of existence; absolute isolation from matter, which is the most immutable degree of existence; absolute freedom from space, which is the state of existence furthest from cessation; and unity, which is the soundest quality of existence and the one remotest from change and non-existence. And yet they attribute pre-eternity and everlastingness, which are the Necessarily Existent One’s most particular qualities and are necessary and essential to Him, to things like ether and particles, which are matter that is material, unbounded and