wondrous art the parts or machinery of a wonderful factory, or marvellous clock, or splendid palace, or fine book, a person does not himself assemble the parts easily and work them, but with protracted and high expense makes each part, each mechanism, and even each sheet of paper and pen into extraordinary machines in order to make the parts themselves construct and work the factory, palace, and clock, and write the book instead of the craftsman. And he refers to them the art and craft, which is the means of displaying all his arts and skills, which he has great desire to exhibit.
In just the same way, those who attribute creation to causes and nature fall into compounded ignorance. For above nature and causes are extremely well-ordered works of art, and they too are artefacts like other creatures. The one who makes them thus, makes their results too and displays them together. The one who makes the seed, also makes the tree above it. And the one who makes the tree, is the one who makes the fruits above it. Otherwise further well-ordered natures and causes would be necessary for other, different natures and causes to come into existence. And so on, ad infinitum. One would have to accept the existence of an infinite, meaningless, impossible chain of illusory fancies. This would be the most extraordinary ignorance.
We have demonstrated with decisive proofs in many places that the most fundamental characteristic of rulership is independence and separateness. Even the weak shadow of rulership in impotent men vehemently rejects the interference of others and does not permit others to meddle in its duty, and in this way preserves its independence. Many kings have mercilessly put to death their innocent children and loved brothers on account of this rejection of interference. That is to say, independence, separateness, and the rejection of the interference of others are the most basic characteristics of true rulership, and are its inseparable necessities and perpetual essentials.
It is because of this characteristic that divine rulership, which is at the degree of absolute dominicality, most vehemently rejects the association of any partners and the participation and interference of others. The Qur’an of Miraculous Exposition too, insistently, repeatedly, and sternly, indicates divine unity and rejects with severe threats the association of partners with God.
Thus, the divine rulership in dominicality necessitates divine unity and indicates a most powerful motive and necessitating cause for it. So too the