creation from absolute non-existence and this is impossible, the most difficult of things. In unity is an ease; it is so easy as to be necessary. While in multiplicity is great difficulty; such difficulty as to be impossible.
With unity, it is possible to create a being from absolute non-existence. That is, to create a being out of pure non-being instantaneously, without matter, and to pour particles into a mould that exists as knowledge without difficulty or confusion. While as all the intelligent agree, with multiplicity and associating partners with God, original creation is not possible from non-existence. Because for the existence of a living creature, particles and elements dispersed throughout the earth have to be gathered together. And when there is no mould existent in knowledge, all the particles have to possess all-encompassing knowledge and absolute will so as to preserve the particles in the body of the animate creature.
In addition, there is no need at all for those things assumed to be partners to God, just as it is impossible that they should be. To make such a claim, therefore, is purely arbitrary; there is nothing in beings to suggest that they have any role in their creation, no sign. For the creation of the heavens and the earth necessitates perfect, infinite power, which is in no need of partners. If there were partners, it would necessitate their limiting that infinite and utterly perfect power and bringing it to an end in infinite time, although there is no necessity for this, indeed, although the reverse is necessitated; and this is impossible in five respects. Such partners are therefore impossible and precluded. Moreover, beings in no way suggest or point to their existence.
We have expounded this matter in the First Stopping-Place of the Thirty-Second Word, showing how all things from minute particles to planets, and from the planets to individual facial features in the Second Stopping-Place, reject the ascribing of partners to God, and pointing out the stamp of divine unity on each of them.
Just as He has no partners, so He has no assistants or ministers. Causes are merely fine veils to the disposals of pre-eternal power; in reality they have no creative effect. For man is the highest of causes and the one with the most extensive will, and out of a hundred parts of the most obvious volitional acts such as eating, speaking, and thinking, he has only one dubious part. If the true power of disposal of the highest of causes and the one with the most extensive will is thus restricted, how is it possible for the animals and inanimate creatures to have a part in the creation and dominicality of the Creator of the heavens and the earth? Just as the envelope in which a king sends a gift, or the handkerchief in which he wraps a present, or the retainer who brings the gift to you, cannot be partners in the king’s